Rare Earth Metal - Alfa Chemistry

Physical Parameters

Physical Parameters

Alfa Chemistry can provide comprehensive material basic testing services, mainly targeted at its services for the physical parameters of materials, which cover density, melting and boiling point analysis, solubility and volatility, hardness and ductility, magnetic.


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Density (ρ), mass of a unit volume of a material substance, a stable physical property. The unit of density usually expressed in units of grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3). For instance, the density of gold is 19.32 g/cm³, and the density of wood is about 0.44~0.57 g/cm3, with an average of 0.54 g/cm3. Density is one of the properties of material, the products made up of identical material has the same value of density, on the contrary, different composition generally has different density.

Melting and boiling point analysis

For a pure substance, generally, from the sample starts to melt to melting completely, the temperature change about one or two degrees. Compared with pure sample, the impure sample may have a wider or narrower temperature range when it melting, thus, this rule can also be applied in determine purity quantitatively. The boiling point is the temperature at which the pure substance boils at 1 standard atmosphere, and the boiling point of different liquids is different. The boiling point of a liquid change depending upon the external pressure, the lower surrounding environmental pressure can result in the lower boiling point.

Solubility and volatility

As a substance, solubility is the symbols of the ability dissolve in a solvent. The range of solubility depends on the substance, from infinitely soluble, which also can be called complete miscible, such as ethanol in water, to insoluble, such as barium sulfate in water. In chemistry, volatility is a material characteristic which represents the degree of material evaporates, it is also used to depict the ability of the vapor to condense into liquid. [1]

Hardness and ductility

The hardness of material is the ability to resist hard objects pressed into its surface locally. Hardness is an inherent property of material, for example, the hardness of stones are higher than wood. Hardness is dependent on many factors such as, ductility, elastic stiffness, toughness, plasticity and viscosity. When the stress greater than the yield stress of material, the material may failure after sustain tensile strain. Therefore, ductility can also be regarded as the measurement of the compressive ability of material. [2]


Most of rare earth metals are paramagnetic. The magnetic of gadolinium is stronger than iron at 0°C, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, and erbium also exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures.

Physical Parameters

Alfa Chemistry provides the basic tests of rare earth-related products, which are the important index parameters of material performance, and can also meet the requirements of customers for reliable and suitable analysis. If you want to know more, please contact us immediately.


  1. Felder, R. Elementary principles of chemical processes. 978-1-119-17764-7. 2015. 279-281.
  2. Kalpakjian, S. Manufacturing processes for engineering materials. 0-201-11690-1, 2016. 30.

※ It should be noted that our service is only used for research, not for clinical use.